Glossary

f-number (ƒ/#) or Aperture/Iris Size how much light or heat a Camera Lens provides to thermal or visible sensor

A low ƒ/# means a larger maximum aperture (also called a fast lens), which results in a higher light or infrared collecting ability while a high ƒ/# means a smaller aperture (slow lens), which has lower light or infrared collecting ability. The lower the f‑number, the better the lens in visible, NIR imaging and SWIR imaging, as it results in a system with increased light (or Lux) sensitivity and allows the camera to capture more accurate images in lower light levels and respond better to IR or white light illumination. For "FLIR"  (Forward Looking Infrared Cameras) thermal cameras a lower F stop improves the range and performance of the camera for both LWIR uncooled cameras as well as MWIR cooled thermal cameras.   Infiniti optics custom builds all types of EO/IR solutions and can offer them as open frame modules (lens and sensor attached) or as complete integrated PTZ cameras with Visible and SWIR sensors for ultra long range imaging  required by a host of  military and defense applications. 

Cooled Thermal MWIR Infrared Imaging (FLIR Forward Looking Infrared) Night Vision Surveillance IR Camera

Cooled thermal Imaging cameras are usually sold as MWIR Mid-wave Infrared imaging, as the name suggest use an integrated cryogenic cooler, which chills the thermal image core to temperatures as low as -196°C (-321°F) to increase the sensitivity and accuracy of the thermal image. Cooled Thermal cameras see longer range than uncooled LWIR cameras with ranges to 55km  (34 miles) for vehicle detection based on DRI military standards as they can have large zoom lens's up to 1400mm making them the best choice for long range night vision. A drawback to MIWR cooled thermal cameras is their higher cost compared standard uncooled LWIR cameras. Infiniti offers both MWIR Cooled and LWIR Uncooled infrared modules in resolutions 640x512 1024x720 1280x1024, 1920x1080 up to 5MP. We sell these as open frame modules (lens and sensor attached) or as complete integrated PTZ cameras with Visible and SWIR sensors for ultra long-range imaging and threat detection even in complete darkness. 

Digital

Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive.

DORI (Detection, Observation, Recognition, Identification) How To Measure How Far a Surveillance Camera Can See?

Detection, Observation, Recognition, and Identification (DORI) are a set of standards used to compare and define the performance of CCTV & IP day night visible surveillance cameras.  

The DORI standard that is based on the IEC EN62676-4: 2015 International Standard, defines different levels of detail for Detection (25PPM), Observation (62PPM), Recognition (125PPM), and Identification (250PPM) for visible light surveillance cameras. By using these PPM values, it is possible to select a specific camera sensor/lens combination and verify that it will provide the performance needed in each application.

  • Detection - The detection level allows for reliable and easy determination of whether a person or vehicle is present.

  • Observation - The observation level gives characteristic details of an individual, such as distinctive clothing, while allowing a view of activity surrounding an incident.

  • Recognition - The recognition level determines with a high degree of certainty whether an individual shown is the same as someone that has been seen before. 

  • Identify - The identification level enables the identity of an individual beyond a reasonable doubt.

 

 

DRI (Detection, Recognition & Identification) Rating for Thermal Cameras- Johnson Criteria

DRI (Detection Recognition Identification) is  a set of standards providing a means of measuring the effective distance of thermal infrared cameras also called the Johnson Criteria. Detection, Recognition, and Identification (DRI) are guidelines that have been set in place by The Night Vision Thermal Imaging Systems Performance Model, also referred to as the Johnson criteria as define a human as 1. 8x .5m  and vehicle as 2.3 x 2,3m for size. They were developed by the US Army to provide a means of measuring the distance whereby a thermal sensor can produce an image of a specific target.  Infiniti optics finds DRI as an outdated specification and are pushing for more modern methods for rating that defines how far a thermal can see such as POT pixels on target and PPM pixel per meter as they offer a better measurement and allow thermal cameras to be compared with visible cameras so customers can understand what the ratings mean to ensure they get the distance required in order to meet their mission objectives wether its a trained operator or an AI measuring the effectiveness of a camera using pixels is the best methodology. 

DRI: Thermal Distance Ratings Explained (Johnson Military Criteria for Detection, Recognition, Identification)

Detection, Recognition, and Identification (DRI) are a set of standards developed by Army Night Vision Laboratory to compare the performance of thermal infrared cameras. This model, also referred to as the Johnson criteria, has become the universal standard for measuring thermal cameras.

 

DRI: Thermal Distance Ratings Explained Johnson Military Criteria for Detection, Recognition, Identification

DRI stands for Detection, Recognition and Identification also known as Johnson Criteria developed by Army Night Vision Laboratory in the 1950's to define the performance of FLIR infrared thermal cameras used for surveillance.  While DRI is a military standard most clients want more detail (Pixels on Target) than DRI rating s stipulates which is why many clients who buy thermal cameras solely based on their rated performance which are rarely reflect real world conditions.

Gyro Stabilization (Mechanical image stablizer) for PTZ Cameras

Active gyro stabilization is when information from a gyroscope is used to mechanically stabilize a PTZ camera system. This is done by using the pan/tilt head to counteract movements detected by the gyroscope, reducing the perceived shake and vibration to keep the image stabilized. Common applications are UAVs, vehicle-mounted systems, vessel and ship-mounted systems, and MAST and tower-mounted systems.

Gyro Stablization fop PTZ Camera Systems ( Active Mechanical Stablization)

Gyro Stabilization is a way to stabilize a camera by sensing for external movements of the system, and then, countering them with opposite movements to the camera controls in real time.  Gyro Image stabilization is a necessary requirement for many long-range PTZ camera applications, since the effects of camera shake are multiplied in long-range images. The need for a high-end stabilization solution is directly related to the field-of-view of the camera being used and how much motion and shake there will be as well as what the camera is mounting to.  MAST, Tower, Ship, Vehicle, UAV will all require different types of Gyro PTZ cameras. 

InSb MWIR Cooled Thermal Infrared Sensor Type (Indium Antimony or Antimonide) 3-5μm Spectral Response

InSb stands for Indium Antimony (or Antimonide) is a type MWIR infrared camera sensor. More specifically a type of Microbolometer sensor used in many Cooled Thermal Infrared Cameras also known as FLIR Forward Looking Infrared Cameras. Infiniti can use InSb or MCT sensors but for most applications we prefer to use the latest technology  for our cameras which is our X-hot material as it provides many of the benefits of InSb and MCT but with improved reliability and 30% less cooling compared to MCT and about 60% less than traditional INSB sensors with improved  resolution up to 5MP and smaller pixel pitch μm  (size of the pixels) of 5μm and 10μm  making  X-Hot it the best technology for long range surveillance and defense applications

Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) Uncooled Thermal Cameras for Surveillance and Defense

Long-wave infrared cameras, are usually uncooled thermal infrared cameras that use heat rater than light in order to see and detect targets.  All objects above absolute zero emit heat, this is why infrared thermal cameras are the best imaging technology for long range night vision, surveillance and threat detection.  LWIR or Long-wave infrared refers to the fact the cameras operate on 8 to 14μm  8000~1400nm which is ideal as that is  the wavelength where targets and objects emit the most  energy on electromagnetic spectrum.  LWIR cameras have a number of benefits over traditional MWIR (Cooled Mid-Wave-Infrared)  as they produce better images in colder environments, have no moving parts or cyro coolers, and typically less export controls which is why uncooled thermal imaging are the most common type of infrared cameras and are usually the best choice for most projects.

Infiniti optics is an industry leader in providing short, medium, and long range EO/IR   turnkey PTZ camera solutions.  Our 12μm LWIR uncooled thermal sensors come a variety of resolution 384×288, 640x480 and  HD 1280×1024 with continuous zoom lens up to 410mm which is equivalent to  580mm lens on a traditional 17μm LWIR camera and a 520mm on 15um MWIR Cooled camera. Infinti optics is a recognized leader EO/IR surveillance cameras with a variety of off the shelf systems as week as custom building solutions based on our customer budget, application and mission objective.

LRF Laser Range Finder for Accurate Distance Measurement

An LRF (laser Range Finder) electro-optical instrument used to measure the distance to a target by determining the time required for a pulse of laser light to travel to the target, reflect from it and return. LRF are often combined with EO/IR PTZ cameras to measure the distance of the target when paired with an IMU or GPS it allows accurate GPS positioning and tracking of targets making them ideal for military and defense applications as well as some commercial and industrial applications where high precision measurement at long ranged are required and cannot be achieved by other means.

LWIR (Long-Wave Infrared) Thermal Imaging (Uncooled Infrared) Night Vision Surveillance Cameras

LWIR (Long Wave Infrared Cameras) are the most common type of FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) thermal infrared surveillance cameras as (LWIR) band from 7 to 14 microns (7,000nm–14,000nm) in wavelength is where terrestrial temperature targets emit most of their infrared energy and unlike cooled thermal cameras require no coolers or maintenance.  Infiniti optics LWIR cameras use the latest 12μm LWIR uncooled thermal sensors with resolutions of 384×288 up to 1280×1024 HD. Our LWIR Zen camera cores are 12μm pixel pitch provides 40% longer range and narrower field of compared to standard 17μm sensor and 25% further range than 15μm cooled INSB sensors while delivering a sensitivity of 0.05°C.  Long Wave Infrared cameras also offer 4x the penetration through humidity and fog compared to MWIR cameras and provide better images when the temperature is cold making LWIR cameras a better option than cooled thermal in a variety of applications. Infiniti pairs our 12um Zen LWIR sensors with our precision-engineered optical zoom germanium lenses to offer wide-angle to long-range views. Our lenses have large apertures of f/1.0–f/1.3 compared to the standard f/1.5–f/1.6, allowing up to 2.3 times more
heat to reach the sensor. This results in higher sensitivity, sharper images, and longer ranges making LWIR one of the most cost-effective long-range imaging solutions. Infiniti offers some of the longest range LWIR cameras with
a 410mm lens currently in development which is equivalent to a 580mm lens on a traditional 17μm LWIR camera.

Infiniti optics custom builds all types of EO/IR solutions and can offer them as open frame modules (lens and sensor attached) or as complete integrated PTZ cameras with Visible and SWIR sensors for ultra long-range imaging and threat detection even in complete darkness.   

MCC

Acronym for Mobile Command Center (sometimes refered to as MCS or Mobile Command Station)

MCT Mercury Cadmium Telluride MWIR 3-5μm Cooled Thermal Sensor

Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) is a very important thermal detector material for MWIR Cooled thermal imaging. MCT Cooled (IR) detectors are used for military and scientific applications. Military applications include the use of IR detector focal plane arrays (FPA's) for night vision thermal imaging cameras for ISR and surveillance often using the MWIR 3-5um wave lengths,  Scientific applications include IR detector arrays in telescope sensors for astronomy and IR detectors for spectrometers and radiometers. MCT requires less cooling compared to standard Indium antimonide (InSb) which means they can have a longer cooler lifetime. Inifniti can use MCT or InSB sensor but for many applications we prefer to use our X-hot material which is the latest sensor material that provides many of the benefits of InSB and MCT but with improved reliability with less cooler as well as resolution up to 5MP and pixel pitch (sensor size) of 5um and 10um making it the best technology for long range surveillance and threat detection. 

Microbolometer

A microbolometer is a specific type of bolometer (a very sensitive digital thermometer where its electrical resistance varies with temperature) used as a detector in a thermal camera.

MWIR (Mid-Wave Infrared) Cooled Thermal Imaging Surveillance Cameras Longer Range than LWIR Uncooled

A Medium-wave infrared (MWIR) surveillance camera is an IR camera that is sensitive to thermal energy (Heat) between 3 to 5 micrometer (3-5μm 3,000-5000nm). Most MWIR camera are cooled thermal which means they have an internal cryogenic cooler that only cools the sensor to temperatures as low as 77° Kelvin (-196°C or -321°F). This dramatically increases the sensitivity of the Cooled Thermal cameras allowing them to see day and night at longer ranges than uncooled cameras as their greater sensitivity allows for bigger less efficient lens than LWIR cameras. As example Infiniti's 85~1400mm cooled thermal cameras provide up to 55km for vehicle detection based on DRI military standards making them the best choice for long range night vision. One drawback is MWIR cooled thermal cameras are higher cost than standard uncooled LWIR cameras. Infiniti offers both MWIR Cooled and LWIR Uncooled infrared modules in 640x512 1024x720 1280x1024, 1920x1080up to 5MP. We sell as open frame modules (lens and sensor attached) or as complete integrated PTZ cameras with Visible and SWIR sensors for ultra long-range imaging and threat detection even in complete darkness. 

Slew To Cue Auto Tracking using EO/IR PTZ Cameras with Radar or PIDS (Perimeter Intrusion Detection Systems) for

Slew to Cue Auto Tracking is where a third party device such as radar or a PIDS (Perimeter Intrusion Detection System)points an EO/IR surveillance PTZ camera to automatically track and follow a target without the need for manual control by the operator this allows a site to monitor and track intruders for autonomously for 24/7 detection, recognition and identification of targets to provide complete site protection when properly designed. Combing cameras and radars results in the most effective solution for site protection and security or to monitor larger areas for day night surveillance.;

Slew To Cue Auto Tracking PTZ Surveillance Camera by Integrating with Radar Surveillance or PIDS (Perimeter Intrusion Detection System) for complete perimeter or wide area security & surveillance

Radar or PIDS Slew to Cue is one of the most effective solutions for auto tracking targets and is also referred to as slew to cue.  Sew to Cue is where a day-night long distance PTZ camera is integrated with a third-party device such as radar or a PIDS (Perimeter Intrusion Detection System) to automatically track and follow a target without the need for manual control by the operator this allows a site to monitor and track intruders for autonomously for 24/7 detection, recognition, and identification of targets from ranges of 200m to 10km in all directions.  Combining PTZ cameras with Radar and intrusion detection systems ensures complete site or perimeter security protection when properly designed is an effective solution to monitor larger areas for automated day night surveillance.;

What is CUAS Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System and how does it detect and track UAV and drones?

C-UAS has become an generic  term for systems that designed to detect, track and disrupt airborne  threats such drones and UAV's they are also referred to as Anti Drone or Anti the most common types rely on RF triangulation or passive RF detection that detects a UAV by its radio frequency (passive RF) Higher end solutions like Infiniti pair RF detection with  3D radar in order to track a target even if it has no RF signal.  Once a solution is detected its than auto tracked using an EO/IR PTZ camera so the threat can be verified and identified. Once a threat is identified a countermeasure is than employed in most low cost system this is often  just an RF jammer which disrupts or takes over the control and GPS of the drone often forcing it to land. Infiniti ADDS Airborne Drone Defense System utilizes jammers but also integrates UAV;s with net guns, as well as HEW high energy weapons depending on the type of threat and distance needed for interdiction.  All these solutions and technologies fall under the category of C-CUAS or Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System which was originally a military term is now commonplace to describe systems used to protect against drones and UAV’s. Drones where once a product limited to the military domain but in recent years this technology has exploded thanks to companies like DJI and is now widely available in commercial, industrial as well as consumers.  Drones offer numerous benefits when used properly but due to small size and weight and their ability to be controlled from 1-10km away they pose a significant security risk as they can easily bypass virtually all traditional physical security measures making it very hard to ensure these drones are not used to spy, trespass, or endanger the public by flying  or  delivering payloads  in unauthorized airspace such as hospital Heli pads or airports. Infiniti offers a variety of anti drones and CUAS solutions to detect, tracking and eliminate air born threats for both commercial and military applications.

 

What is a LRF Laser Range Finder and what is its purpose?

An LRF (laser Range Finder) is a very precise measurement tool that uses pulses of light to determine the distance to a target based on time each pulse of laser light takes travel to the target, reflect into the sensor. Laser Range Finders (LRF) are often combined with EO/IR Electro Optical and Thermal infrared  PTZ cameras to very accurately  measure the distance of the targets at very long distances  from 1-25km. Laser Range Finders are often paired with an IMU or GPS sensors which allow the PTZ camera to very accurately geo located the GPS position for accurate tracking targets making them ideal for military and defense applications as well as some commercial and industrial applications where high precision measurement at long ranges are required and cannot be achieved by other means.

                                                      

What is a Thermal Cameras F-Stop and why is the F Number so important for Infrared Surveillance Cameras?

A FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared Camera) Thermal Cameras f‑number (ƒ/#) or f‑stop refers to the ratio of a lens’s focal length to its aperture’s diameter and indicates the amount of IR energy (Heat) coming through the lens to the MWIR or LWIR infrared sensor.  IR GE lenses are typically specified with their maximum aperture at the max zoom and focal length. The Lower the ƒ/ number the more thermal IR energy is reaching the infrared sensor which increases the distance, contrast, and overall performance of the thermal infrared cameras especially for surveillance where long range detection recognition and identification is required in even in low contrast scenes. A thermal cameras sensitivity is measure by its NEdT Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference often described in milli-Kelvins (thousandths of a degree) is determined by the thermal cameras sensor sensitivity and the F stop of the lens.

 

What is Active Gyro Stabilization and Why is it Important for Long Range PTZ Cameras?

Gyro Stabilization also known as active mechanical method of stabilization for a PTZ camera system that uses a high-end sensor like a MEMS IMU or Fog Gyro to measure the amount of motion of the platform that than tries to move the pan tilt to eliminate that motion. Gyro image stabilizers are designed to reduce or eliminate motion to keep the camera focused on target. It is important to look at the specs of the pan/tilt before purchasing a gyro stabilized system as it must be able to perform quickly and accurately enough to stabilize the image. Not all gyro stabilization systems are created equal. The type of system you require will depend on its intended usage and long range and more powerful the cameras the greater the need for stabilization.

 

 

What is Active Gyro Stabilization and Why is it Important for Long Range PTZ Cameras?

Gyro Stabilization also known as active mechanical stabilization uses a PTZ camera system that uses a high-end sensor like a MEMS IMU or Fog Gyro to measure the amount of motion of the platform that than tries to move the pan tilt to eliminate that motion. Gyro image stabilizers are designed to reduce or eliminate motion to keep the camera focused on target. It is important to look at the specs of the pan/tilt before purchasing a gyro stabilized system as it must be able to perform quickly and accurately enough to stabilize the image. Not all gyro stabilization systems are created equal. The type of system you require will depend on its intended usage and long range and more powerful the cameras the greater the need for stabilization.

 

 

What is an Anti Drone (CUAS) Counter UAV System and how do they work?

C-CUAS or Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System is a military term for solutions that are designed to detect, track, and ultimately disrupt and destroy unmanned airborne vehicles, in commercial and industrial applications the term anti drone is often used. Drones where once a product limited to the military domain but in recent years this technology has exploded thanks to companies like DJI and is now widely avail bile in commercial, industrial as well as consumers. Drones offer a huge amount of benefits but due to small size and weight and their ability to be controlled up to 5km away they can pose a significant risk as they can easily bypass virtually all existing physical security measures making it very hard to ensure these drones are not used to spy, trespass, or endanger the public by flying in unauthorized airspace such as hospital Heli pads or airports. Infiniti offers a variety of anti-drones and CUAS solutions to detect, tracking and eliminate air born threats for both commercial and military applications.

What is an Anti UAV / counter drone system (C-UAS) and how does the technology work?

A counter drone or counter UAV system is used to deny airspace access to unmanned aircraft that aren’t authorized to fly there. C-CUAS or Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System is a military term for solutions that are designed to detect, track eliminate unmanned airborne vehicles, in commercial and industrial applications the term anti drone is often used. Drones are no longer a product limited military the use of  UAV and drones has exploded thanks to companies like DJI and is now widely avail bile in commercial ,industrial as well as consumers. Drones offer a huge number of benefits but due to small size and weight and their ability to be controlled up to 5km away they can pose a significant risk as they can easily bypass virtually all existing physical security measures making it very hard to ensure these drones are not used to spy, trespass, or endanger the public by flying in unauthorized airspace such as hospital Heli pads or airports. Infiniti offers a variety of Anti drones and CUAS solutions to detect, tracking and eliminate air born threats for both commercial and military applications

What is an Aperture/Iris and why is it important for Long Range PTZ Surveillance Cameras and Night Vision ?

A cameras or lens's Aperture also know as  ƒ number or f-stop refers  the size of opening of the the lens (aperture) vs the power of the lens which is called focal length (measured in mm). The smaller the F number the bigger the aperture which  results in a higher light or infrared collecting ability while a high ƒ stop results in lower  amount light or infrared collecting ability. The lower the f‑number (Larger Aperture) the better the lens  is and the better the camera will operate in visible, NIR imaging and SWIR and especially thermal infrared  imaging. In Visible, NIR and SWIR cameras a lower f stop results in in a camera system with increased light (or Lux) sensitivity which allows allows the camera to capture more accurate images in lower light levels and respond better to IR or white light illumination.  For Infrared thermal cameras it increases the heat gathering capability which is measured mk (millikelvins .001°C).  A "FLIR"  (Forward Looking Infrared Cameras) thermal camera equipped with a lower F stop GE lens improves the range and performance for both LWIR uncooled cameras as well as MWIR cooled thermal cameras.   Infiniti optics custom builds all types of EO/IR solutions and can offer them as open frame modules (lens and sensor attached) or as complete integrated PTZ cameras with Visible and SWIR sensors for ultra long range imaging  required by a host of  military and defense applications. 

What is an uncooled LWIR Thermal Infrared FLIR Camera and why is it often a better choice than MWIR Cooled Thermal Cameras?

LWIR (Long Wave Infrared Cameras) uncooled infrared cameras are the most common type of FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) thermal infrared surveillance cameras as (LWIR) band from 7 to 14 microns (7,000nm–14,000nm) in wavelength is where terrestrial temperature targets emit most of their infrared energy and unlike cooled thermal cameras require no coolers or maintenance.  Infiniti optics LWIR cameras use the latest 12μm LWIR uncooled thermal sensors with resolutions of 384×288 up to 1280×1024 HD. Our LWIR Zen camera cores are 12μm pixel pitch provides 40% longer range and narrower field of compared to standard 17μm sensor and 25% further range than 15μm cooled INSB sensors while delivering a sensitivity of 0.05°C. 

Infiniti pairs our 12um Zen LWIR sensors with our precision-engineered optical zoom germanium lenses to offer wide-angle to long-range views. Our lenses have large apertures of f/1.0–f/1.3 compared to the standard f/1.5–f/1.6, allowing up to 2.3 times more
heat to reach the sensor. This results in higher sensitivity, sharper images, and longer ranges making LWIR one of the most cost-effective long-range imaging solutions. Infiniti offers some of the longest range LWIR cameras with
a 410mm lens currently in development which is equivalent to a 580mm lens on a traditional 17μm LWIR camera.

 

What is AUDS (Anti-UAV Defence System) and how is different than C-UAS System?

The AUDS is an acronym for Anti-UAV Defense System. It refers to a specific product that was released in 2015 by Blighter Surveillance Systems, Chess Dynamics, and Enterprise Control Systems.  As it was once of the first commercially available C-UAS (Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System), some incorrectly use it as a generic term for anti drone rather than a specific product.  So, AUDS is product that falls under the categories of C-UAS and Anti Drone, but other solutions should not be referred to as AUDS.  Since 2015 there have been many advancements in UAV's and drones. As well as, the technology used to counter them. As an example, the AUDS uses jamming as its countermeasure. But, this only works on drones that operate on the frequencies being jammed. Some drones fly using AI and therefore have no controlling frequency. Thus, they are completely immune to system like the AUDS that rely on jamming as their countermeasure method.  Infiniti customer builds C-UAS and Anti drone solutions based on type of threat application and mission objective complete protection against airborne threats. 

What is DORI (Detection, Observation, Recognition, Identification) and why is it important for CCTV/ IP Surveillance cameras

accompanied.

DORI is an industry standard that defines how much detail in PPM (Pixels Per Meter) a visible surveillance camera needs to provide to obtain Detection, Observation, Recognition, Identification. This will be specified as a distance rating usually in Meters or Kilometers but can also be defined in miles and feet. Just as gas mileage tells you the rated fuel efficiency of a car, DORI and PPM defines how much detail a camera is providing tied to a specific distance. The DORI standard that is based on the IEC EN62676-4: 2015 International Standard, which defines different levels of detail for Detection (25PPM), Observation (62PPM), Recognition (125PPM), and Identification (250PPM) for visible light surveillance cameras. The goal of DORI is to provide a benchmark and rating system to define how far a camera will see at different ranges based on how much detail is required. For DORI, Detection only requires 25PPM (Pixel Per Meter) whereas Identification requires 250PPM so a visible camera rating for detection is 10x the distance compared to its identification rating

What is F-stop and why is F Numbers of the lens so important for Thermal Infrared Cameras?

A FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared Camera) Thermal Cameras f‑number (ƒ/#) or f‑stop refers to the ratio of a lens’s focal length to its aperture’s diameter and indicates the amount of IR energy (heat) coming through the lens to the MWIR or LWIR infrared sensor.  IR GE lenses are typically specified with their maximum aperture at the max zoom and focal length. 

What is FOV Field of View of a Camera why is an important spec for Surveillance Cameras

The field of view (FOV, also called angle of view) is the width of the scene that a camera detects on its sensor. It is determined by the focal length of the lens in relation to the sensor size. Longer lenses or smaller sensors produce narrower fields of view, while shorter lenses or larger sensors produce wider fields of view. A smaller field of view means that a camera is more “zoomed in” (to use a term that most people are familiar with). For example, a camera with a 90° horizontal field of view (HFOV) will see a 1000m wide section of a wall that is 500m in front of it.

What is LiDAR?

LiDAR is an acronym of "Light Detection And Ranging" or "laser imaging, detection, and ranging"] LiDAR sometimes is called 3-D laser scanning, it is essentially a special combination of a 3-D scanning.

What is Low-SWaP (Small Size Weight and Power) for military equipment?

Low-SWaP is an Acronym commonly used in the security/aerospace industries. It stands for Size Weight and Power where you are trying to make a system light with a lower power draw this same priceable also applies to gimbal UAV  and EO/IR cameras.  The requirement for low-SWaP has increased in military literature and requirements over the past decade. As warfare modernizes and demands for military and tactical deployment increase small size and weight has become increasingly important for thermal, visible and SWIR camera payloads.

 

What is MWIR Cooled thermal Imaging and How are they Different from LWIR Uncooled Cameras?

Cooled thermal Imaging cameras are usually sold as MWIR Mid-wave Infrared imaging, as the name suggest use an integrated cryogenic cooler, which chills the thermal image core to temperatures as low as -196°C (-321°F)  to increase the sensitivity and accuracy of the thermal image. Uncooled cameras are based on VoX infrared sensor and are often uncooled and operated on LWIR long wave infrared wavelength. Cooled Thermal cameras see longer range than uncooled cameras as their greater sensitivity allows for bigger less efficient lens than LWIR cameras. Infiniti's 86~1400mm cooled thermal cameras allow for up 55km (34 miles) for vehicle detection based on DRI military standards making them the best choice for long range night vision but come at a higher cost than standard uncooled LWIR cameras. Infiniti offers both MWIR Cooled and LWIR Uncooled infrared modules in 640x512 1024x720 1280x1024, 1920x1080up to 5MP. We sell as open frame modules (lens and sensor attached) or as complete integrated PTZ cameras with Visible and SWIR sensors for ultra long-range imaging and threat detection even in complete darkness. 

What is the AUDS (Anti-UAV Defence System) Anti Drone and C-UAS System and how are they different?

AUDS, Anti Drone and C-CUAS systems are all very similar in that they are system that are designed to detect, track and intercept drones, UAV's and other airborne threats. Anti drone solutions where once only used for military and defence applications but due the increase of use and availability of UAV and drones it is very easily to for just about anyone to bypass all traditional perimeter security measures and fly a drone in an authorized area. This is why anti drone solutions play a critical role in over all protection for facilities such as airports, critical infrastructure, large public spaces such as stadiums, and VIP protection like the recent G7 political summits gatherings like the climate summit that just took place in Ireland. 

What is the importance of Thermal Cameras F-Number and how does that impact an Infrared Cameras NEdT Sensitivity

A FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared Camera) Thermal Cameras f‑number (ƒ/#) or f‑stop refers to the ratio of a lens’s focal length to its aperture’s diameter and indicates the amount of IR energy (heat) coming through the lens to the MWIR or LWIR infrared sensor.  IR GE lenses are typically specified with their maximum aperture at the max zoom and focal length.  An IR cameras sensitivity can be defined by its NEdT Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference which is often measured in milli-Kelvins (thousandths of a degree) and is determined by the thermal cameras sensor sensitivity and the F stop of the lens it is the net performance for infrared imaging cameras just as lux is used to measure the sensitivity of visible cameras.

What is the relationship between a Lens F-number (Aperture to Focal Length) And Sensitivity & Performance of a Thermal Infrared Camera?

A FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared Camera) Thermal Cameras f‑number (ƒ/#) or f‑stop refers to the ratio of a lens’s focal length to its aperture’s diameter and indicates the amount of IR energy (heat) coming through the lens to the MWIR or LWIR infrared sensor. IR GE lenses are typically specified with their maximum aperture at the max zoom and focal length and for uncooled thermal cameras are the biggest factor to the IR cameras overall sensitivity.

X-HOT High Temperature Cooled Thermal MWIR Infrared Camera Sensor

X-Hot Cooled Thermal Infrared Cameras Core: Infiniti uses X-hot material as it provides many of the benefits of InSb and MCT but with improved reliability and 30% less cooling compared to MCT with improved resolution up to 5MP and smaller pixel pitch μm  (size of the pixels) of 5μm and 10μm  making it the best technology for long range surveillance and defense applications.